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Main Battle Tank

T - 84

The T-84 Main Battle Tank

Crew  3
Dimensions and weight
Total weight in combat order 48 t
Overall length 9 720 mm
Chassis length 7 350 mm
Overall width 3 560 mm
Overall height 2 285 mm
Armament
Main gun 2A46M-1 125-mm Smoothbore Gun
Machine guns 1 x 7.62-mm, 1 x 12.7-mm
Traverse range 360 degrees 
Combat load
Main gun 40 rounds
Machine guns 1250 x 7.62-mm, 450 x 12.7-mm cartridges
Mobility
Engine power 1200 or 1500 hp.
Maximum road speed 65 - 75 km/h
Autonomy on roads 540 km
Maneuverability
Slope 58
Vertical step 1 m
Trench 2.85 m
Ford unprepared 1.8 m
Ford with preparation 5 m
   This main battle tank's development works started in Charkov Machine-Building Plant's Design Bureau in the late 80-ties. The T-84 is an improved modification of the T-80UD Main Battle Tank.Scheme of the T-84 Main Battle Tank

   After the breakup of the Soviet Union designers faced technical and supply problems. However by the help of Ukrainian Ministry of Machine-Building and Military-Production corpse there were made great preparation works to produce all parts of the new tank indigenously.

   The T-84 Main Battle Tank was publicly presented in United Arabian Emirates in 1995 during international armament exhibition. The new tank called interest in the Pakistan Army and after a long negotiations there was made an agreement to sell 320 T-84 Main Battle Tanks for Pakistan.

   Comparing with the T-80UD the T-84 features improved explosive reaction armor. Tank features multi-layer armor, filled with ceramic thinners and built in second generation explosive reaction armor packages. Built in explosive reaction armor packages have modular design and can be replaced damaged or during tank's improvement works by more advanced.

   The main armament is similar to it's predecessor - the T-80UD Main Battle Tank. It is completed with 125-mm smoothbore gun. It features a quickly detachable barrel, that can be replaced in the field conditions. The PKT 7.62-mm Machine Gun is coaxially mounted with the main gun. One more 12.7-mm anti-aircraft machine gun is mounted on the roof. Anti-aircraft machine gun is operated remotely from inside of the turret.

   The main gun is fed with a separately loaded rounds. It's ammunition is completed with armor-piercing undercaliber projectiles, anti-tank cumulative, high-explosion fragmentation projectiles, anti-tank guided missiles. Anti-tank guided missile can be fired from the moving into a moving target. Guided missiles are intended to defeat targets out of reach for usual projectiles and low flying helicopters. However high penetration characteristics sometimes make missiles even more effective at any ranges comparing with ordinary projectiles. The T-84 has a 40 round ammunition storage where 28 of them are placed in an The T-84 Main Battle Tank on international military exhibitionautomatically loaded storage.

   Fire control system provides dual handling for the main gun and machine gun both. Commander operates combined sight with independently stabilized sighting line. Gunner operates "Irtysh" day sight, laser rangefinder, anti-tank guided missiles control system and new "Buran" thermovision system. Fire control system is based on ballistic computer considering to a number of factors for accurate fire.

   One more improvement is the "Shtora-1" Active Optical-Electronic System intended for active counteraction against anti-tank guided missiles, based on semi-automatic or semi-active laser guidance. It has two warning indicators, informing crew about vehicle's enlightening by a laser beam, two infrared strays generators, two 6-barrel smoke grenade launchers, computer and control deck.

   Such system greatly increases tank's survivability in the battlefield. Polygon tests of the "Shtora-1" shows it's high effectivity: hit probability launching anti-tank guided missile based on a semi-automatic command guidance principle is decreased 3-fold and based on a laser semi-active guidance - 4-fold. Corrected Artillery Projectiles are 1.5-fold less effective. Furthermore this complex is capable to counteract against some missiles, attacking main battle tank from different locations at once.

   The main difference of the T-84 from it's predecessor is aThe T-84 Main Battle Tank presence of a more powerful engine. Main battle tank is powered with 6TD-2 Multi-Fuel Turbo Diesel Engine. The 6TD-2 reaches 1 200 hp power. Furthermore there is more powerful variant of the T-84, completed with 6TD-3 - the 1 500 hp engine.

   Vehicle is fitted with an auxiliary power unit, based on a gas turbine engine. It is a new element as the T-80UD had no such unit. It supplies tank when the main engine is stopped. Furthermore auxiliary power unit ignitions the main engine. It is mounted at the rear of the hull.

   Planetary transmission provides 7 forward and 1 backward gears.

   As al the other modern main battle tanks, the T-84 is fitted with communication devices, navigation equipment, nuclear, biological, chemical protection system, automatic fire-prevention system, air conditioner. Furthermore it is fitted with a water obstacles fording equipment, that allows to manage 5 meter depth water obstacles. One more device, very common to all Soviet made main battle tanks is an entrenching equipment. Tank entrenches itself in 15-40 minutes, depending from ground type. The T-84 can be fitted with the KTM-6 Mine Trawl.

   There are developed later modifications of the T-84 Main Battle Tank:

   - T-84U "Jatagan" (Yataghan [English]). This modification was prepared to participate in the Turkish tender. From the base model it differs in foreign fire-control system and great dimension side screens.

   - T-84-120 "Oplot". It is variant of the T-84 with a modified turret. This main battle tank features a 120-mm standard NATO caliber main gun and automatically loaded ammunition storage placed in the turret instead of the hull. This version is completed with a great dimension side screens as well.The T-84 Main Battle Tank fords water obstacle.

Advantages

   Powerful main gun and automatic reloading mechanism. Good armored protection. Ability to fire anti-tank guided missiles from the main gun. Active counteraction system against anti-tank guided missiles. Powerful multi-fuel engine. Tank has high mobility and maneuverability features and is easily driven and furthermore has high average speed. Low fuel consumption (25% less than with the T-80UD). Reasonable price in the international armament market.

Disadvantages

   Engine is hard-ignition without auxiliary supply unit in unpleasant conditions. Engine has serious limitations as it is not cooled properly in hot air due to a week cooling system. In such conditions it's power is artificially decreased.


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