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Amphibious Landing Craft

904/902R Orlan class

WIG effect

 

D. (tons):

140

Speed (kts):

200

Dimensions (m):

58,1 x 31,5 x 1,5

Alt. (m):

<10 -3000

Range (km):

1500

M./Engine:

2 start. turboreact.turbines +1; 15'000 hp; 550 n.m/180 kts; for 902R 2'200/250 kts;
Wig-In-Ground (WIG) effect craft take advantage of cashions of air generated by flowing a broad-chord wing at low alltitude

Man./Crew:

? crew + 200 marines +20 tons

Armament:

Missiles:

for 902 R:   3 x 2 Moscit (SS-N-22)
(R: 80 n.m; S: 2,5 mach)

Artillery:

no

Torpedoes:

no

Other:

no

WIG-effect - magnification of bearing properties of a wing of a flight vehicle for want of flight at small heights because of influence of a surface. From it by manifestation airtoruses for the first time have confronted(met): for want of landing approach, in immediate proximity from ground, the piloting of a plane(airplane) became complicated, and, the was higher lift-to-drag ratio of the aeroplan, the more force the operation of screen «cushion» had an effect. From the point of view of the pilots and airdesigners this effect is unconditional, and there is nothing surprising that the possibility of useful use of the given phenomenon interested the founders of high-speed courts. As is known, the introduction of underwater wings has allowed essentially, in 2-3 times, to increase a velocity on a comparison with usual ships. However, the further growth practically has become impossible because of the physical phenomenon of a cavitation (cold boiling) water on the upper surface of a underwater wing. The court on an air cushion, artificially created by superchargers, was reached(achieved) by velocities of the order of 150-180 km / hours - level becoming a limit for them because of loss of stability of movement.
WIG ships, supported above a surface with the help of of dynamic air cushion, promised a solution of the arisen problems for further increase of a velocity. Still in before war period in TsAGI was conducted a number of experimental and theoretical work& permitting to create a mathematical basis for design development acting is exemplar. The use of screen effect gave sharp increase of an economic response of WIG ships on a comparison with planes(airplanes) of comparable take-off weight and payload: for WIG the flight is possible for want of smaller amount of drives (or for want of drives of a smaller potency) and, accordingly, for want of smaller propellant consumption, than at a compared plane(airplane). Besides flying up with water the expensive air stations removing from land tenure huge territories are not necessary. Advantage before SKS (vessel on underwater wings) - in velocity in 4-6 times greater ship and much more smaller crew.
However, most perspective was looked by(with) use of WIG ships in military sphere: To higher($above) to the transferred(listed) dignities the reserve last - flying at height of several meters object extremely difficultly joined to detect visually or with the help of of radars, that allows to put to the opponent unexpected impacts, remaining for want of it lowvisible for an answer-back light. Add here maneuverability, significant carrying capacity, large radius of an operation, stability(resistance) to battle(dashing) damages - and you receive almost ideal means of transport for landing and support marine descents. In the beginning of the 60-th years the work& above the actual prototypes for use just in military area - have begun it is not necessary now to overlook time, in which the circumscribed events were teared. By headquarters plants creating a new kind of engineering, steel air OKB of the name G. Beriev in Taganrog known by the hydroplanes(hydroairplanes)), where the group of the designers under a management(manual) R. Bartini designed a series of WIG ships with a label BBA- vertically flying up amphibian, and ship TsKB on SPK in Nizhni Novgorod (. Bitter), Certainly, in that time both chiefs were alive, and the organizations, headed by them, carried other titles. The designer collectives have confronted(met) with a mass hard decided problems: by necessity of creation easy and simultaneously robust, capable to sustain impact about crests of waves with a velocity of 400-500 km / hours and height of flight which is not exceeding significance of an average aerodynamic chord of a wing, on which screen effect was exhibited.
It was necessary to develop necessary materials, as ship-building were too heavy, and air the touches with salty water and fast corroded did not maintain. The eventual result was impossible without reliable drives - this work the firm led by N. Kuznetsov, prepared has conducted known(!known) ginišinnšicnåeüka? special marine updating widely widespread(distributed) turbofan- NK-12, and turbojet - NK-8-4 of airdrives maintained on the planes(airplanes) An-22, Tu-95, Tu-154 and many other. It is necessary to mark, that the attempts of creation of WIG ships were undertaken not only in USSR, but also in other countries of the world: Finland, Sweden, Switzerland and Germanium, USA. However necessity of realization of huge volume research and experimental - design efforts, comprehensive mockup and full-scale researches - for want of reliance of final success - resulted in swerving development for want of termination(discontinuance) of state financing.
The appropriate state program was accepted, where by the customer the NAVAL fleet USSR acted, And if in Taganrog after death of R. Bartini- most talented engineer, offspring of an italian aristocratic kind, on to inclinings conditions to emigrate in a 1923 in USSR, the work& above the management,(manual,) designed under it, WIG ship VVA-14 were terminated, in Nizhni Novgorod of development and construction have accepted the broadest range. They be ordered on several main directions: shock missile-carrier with winged rockets onboard, transport-descent ship, ASW ship a means. Then there was a clarification of a nomenclature: WIG ships of steel to name the ships which are capable to fly only on a screen cushion, meanses, have a possibility to leave on only plane modes, were designated as WIG. After a series of experiments with models, in which course(!during) the basic;$in essence arrangement circuit(scheme) was fulfilled, ten sequentially were constructed experimental(experienced) is exemplar with gradual magnification of dimensions and take-off weights.
Top of the found aerodynamic solution has become a CM,(command module,) constructed in a 1963, - ship - breadboard model of enormous sizes: in length more than 100 m, range of a wing about 40 m, and take-off weight more than 540 tons. In an extremity of the 60-th years it was photographed by(with) the American companions, and in West the CM(command module) has received a nickname « a Monster of the Caspian sea » for the exotic predatory kind. WIG ship comprehensively was tested over fifteen years and has provuck full viability of the given kind of engineering. Infortunately, in a 1980 because of an error of a piloting it(he) has crashed, reducing to significant damages, and dive. Continuing a line of development, in a 1972 on running (flight) tests was introduced WIG ship «Orlenok», intended for a transportation marine äånaknia to distance up to 1500 km.
«Orlenok» is capable to accept aboard up to 200 marines with full arms or two floating tanks (BTR, BMP) with crews, to fly up from a wave up to the 2-nd meters and with a velocity of 400-500 km / hours to deliver descent to a place of landing. For him(it) are not by an obstacle any protective obstacles - mine and network - it(he) simply flys above them. After water landing and output(exit) on a rather slanting shore, «Orlenok» lands the people and engineering through a throwed off to the right nose. On tests, in one from test flights, zzšakieån has shown surprising survival, by receiving damages fatal to the ship, and furthermore for a plane(airplane). Impact about water at «Orlenok» has come off forages with Kiel, horizontal ilåšåkcåg and sustainer NK-12MK. However pilots have not become puzzled, and, by increasing turnovers of nose take-off and landing drives, have not given to be loaded in water and have finished the machine up to shores. By the reason of failure, apparently, steel of a crack in a tail part of tanks obtained during the previous flights and in time not remarked.
On new copies the fragile constructional(structural) material K482T1 was replaced on AlMg alloy AMG61. Five in total were constructed WIG ships of a type «Orlenok»: «double» - for static tests; S-23 - first flight prototype from an alloy Z482N1 (is developed after failure); S-21 constructed in a 1977; S-25 assembled in a 1980 and S-26, put into operation in a 1983. All of them were included in structure of Naval aircraft , and on their basis(!on the basis of) 11-I was generated separate airgroup of direct subordination to Main headquarters of marine aircraft. One from them also was lost in a 1992 in an outcome of catastrophe, during which one member of crew has perished. On some datas, the state program provided construction of 100 (!) «Orlenok». At last this figure was corrected up to 24, the Serial assembly should be realized by(with) ship-building factories in Nizhni Novgorod and Feodosiya. However these plans could not be embodied. In 1985 production of the newest kinds of the weapon generally and WIG ships in particular(personally) actively developed. Later has closed the program of construction, and means, chosen on it,(her,) has prefered to return on the extension of fleet of nuclear submarines, after that Navy has lost interest to the unique subdividing, and the completely confidential basis(!on the basis of) in city Kaspiisk, located on a coast of the of the same name sea in several kilometers from capital of Dagestan - Makhachkala is no time, the gradually comes in desolation - means are selected only on the money contents of personal structure. The flight staff, before arrival in group flying, in main, on ASW planes - amphibians Be-12, has minimum annual flight-time- 30 hours - « on other types of flight vehicles »: WIG ships are not in a flight condition partially because of development(manufacture) of resource(safe life), all is partial owing to absence that financings, so also of spare parts, materials, fuel, Just so, as well as the branch WIG of a type «Orlenokz», dries up also branch shock missile-carriers «Lun'». Engaging(borrowing) an intermediate position on sizes and start mass between the SM(command module) and «Orlenok», «Lun'» also is unique in his way(in her way,in its way). As a matter of fact being by a high-speed transport-starting platform for supersonic antiship cruise missiles ZM80 of a complex «Moskit», developed MKB«Rainbow», it(he) has power onboard fire - 6 launchers of a container type - compared(comparable) with fire of a missile cruiser, exceeding it on a velocity is applied in 10 times.
About advantage in a maneuverability and gaeieagånkinnc it is not necessary and to speak. It is important at that, that on cost of construction and operation «Lun'» is much cheaper. Certainly, WIG ships are not capable to replace the ships - carriers of rocket arms, yes such and was not provided. But for an operation in the rather limited water areas, what are, for example. The Baltic, Black or Mediterranean seas, the squadrons of «Lun'» could effectively supplement the battle(dashing) ships. Now one constructed shock «Lun'» stands on territory of base in Kaspiisk, representing a sad show calling associations with skeleton, exhibited on a review in a museum. Second, on some informations, is finished building in search and rescue variant.
By confronting(meeting) with absence of the main customer, TsKB tries to catch in the sail a wind of conversion. On basis of the existing projects the civil updatings of «Orlenok» and «Lun'» are developed.

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